Saturday, August 2, 2014

Digestive enzymes and their action


Digestive enzymes and their action


The small intestine is where most chemical digestion takes place. Most of the digestive enzymes that act in the small intestine are secreted by the pancreas and enter the small intestine via the pancreatic dust.


Digestive enzymes and their action
Name of gland
Enzyme
Acting on
Product
Salivary glands
(Mouth)
Salivary amylase
(Ptyalin)
Cooked starch
Maltose
Gastric glands
(stomach )
Pepsin
Proteins
Peptides
Rennin
Milk casein
Curd


Pancreas
Trypsin *
Proteins, peptides
Amino acids
Chymotrypsin *
Proteins, peptides
Amino acids
Carboxy peptidase *
Peptides
Amino acids
Pancreatic amylase
Starches
Maltose
Lipase
Lipids
Fatty acids & Glycerol

Ribo nuclease
RNA
Ribonucleotides
Deoxy ribonuclease
DNA
Deoxy Ribonucleotides
Peptidases
Peptides
Aminoacids
Sucrase
Sucrose
Fructose, Glucose
Maltase
Maltose
Glucose
Lactase
Lactose
Glucose, Galactose
*Together called proteases


Minerals required through diet
Elements
Functions
Micronutrients:
Chromium
Involved in glucose metabolism
Cobalt
In vitamin B12, formation of Erythrocytes
Copper
Production of Hemoglobin, Bone formation
Fluorine
Resistance to tooth decay
Iodine
In Thyroid hormone
Manganese
Activates many enzymes
Molybdenum
Required by some enzymes
Selenium
Involved in the metabolism of fat
Zinc
Involved in the physiology of insulin
Macronutrients
Calcium
In bones and teeth, in blood clotting
Chlorine
In digesting as hydrochloric acid
Iron
In Hemoglobin, Myoglobin
Magnesium
Found in bones and teeth, in many enzymes
Phosphorous
In nucleic acids, phospholipids and ATP
Potassium
Principal positive iron in cells, Nerve action
Sodium
Principal positive iron in cells, Nerve action
Sulphur
In proteins. Detoxification of toxins



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